Inflammatory Heart Disease

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Imflammatory Heart Disease


What is Inflammatory Heart Disease?

Inflammatory heart disease (IHD) is a group of heart diseases consisting of pericarditis, myocarditis and endocarditis. IHD can be reflected in any age group. PERICARDITIS: Swelling and Irritation of the thin, saclike tissue surrounding the heart (pericardium). MYOCARDITIS: Inflammation of heart muscle (myocardium). It affects the heart muscle, reducing its ability to pump and by causing rapid heart rhythms. ENDOCARDITIS: Inflammation of the inner lining of the heart’s chambers and the valves (endocardium).
Signs & Symptoms (Pericarditis)
Signs & Symptoms (Myocarditis)
Signs & Symptoms (Endocarditis)
Causes and Risk Factors
Prevention of IHD


  • Sharp chest pain, usually happens behind the breastbone or in the left side of the chest. It may spread to the left shoulder and neck. It gets worse when the patient cough, lie down or take a deep breath. Sitting up and lean in forward makes one feel better.
  • Abdominal or leg swelling
  • Cough
  • Fatigue or general feeling of weakness or being sick
  • Low-grade fever
  • Heart palpitation
  • Shortness of breath when lying down

Causes of Pericarditis

  • Heart attack or heart surgery
  • Infection
  • Systemic Inflammatory disorders
  • Trauma
  • Health Disorders such as kidney failure, AIDS, tuberculosis and cancer.


  • Pericardial effusion
  • Chronic constrictive pericarditis
  • Cardiac tamponade


  • Chest pain
  • Rapid or abnormal heart rhythms (arrhythmias)
  • Shortness of breath, at rest or during physical activity
  • Fluid retention with swelling of your legs, ankles and feet
  • Fatigue
  • Symptoms of viral infection such as headache, fever, a sore throat, diarrhea, body aches, joint pain

Causes of Myocarditis

  • Viruses
  • Bacteria
  • Parasites
  • Fungi
  • Medications or illegal drugs that might cause an allergic or toxic reaction
  • Chemicals or radiation
  • Disorders such as lupus, Wegener’s granulomatosis, giant cell arteritis and takayasu’s arterities.


  • Heart Failure
  • Heart Attack or stroke
  • Rapid or abnormal heart rhythms (arrhythmias)
  • Sudden cardiac death


  • Aching joints and muscles
  • Chest pain when you breathe
  • Fatigue
  • Flu-like symptoms, such as fever and chills
  • Night sweats
  • Shortness of breath
  • Swelling in your feet, legs or abdomen
  • Changed heart murmur


  • Improper dental care
  • Catheters
  • Illegal IV drug use

Risk Factors

  • Older age
  • Artificial heart valves
  • Damaged heart valves
  • Congenital heart defects
  • Implanted heart device
  • A history of endocarditis
  • A history of illegal IV drug use
  • Poor dental health
  • Long-term catheter use


  • Heart problems such as heart murmur, heart valve damage and heart failure
  • Stroke
  • Pocket of collected pus that develops in the heart, brain, lungs and other organs
  • Blood clot in lung artery (pulmonary embolism)
  • Kidney damage
  • Enlarged spleen


  • Following good hygiene
  • Minimize exposure to ticks
  • Practicing regular vaccination
  • Practicing safe sex
  • Staying up to date on vaccines
  • Treating chest infections such as pneumonia promptly
  • Take good care of your teeth and gums
  • Regular checkups for autoimmune conditions

How is it diagnosed?


How is it treated?


In case of Minor Inflammatory Heart Disease:

  • Antibiotics
  • Drugs that reduce inflammation
  • Medications for heart failure
  • Corticosteroids

In case of Serious Inflammatory Heart Disease:

  • Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO)
  • Heart Transplant
  • Medical devices such as implantable cardioverter-defibrillator or advanced technology pacemaker
  • Pericardiocentesis

When do I contact the doctor?


You need to consult the doctor immediately in case of seizures and blackouts. While some of these symptoms may be a result of other medical condition, it is always advisable to receive immediate medical attention. Repeated seizures can cause serious injury and must never be ignored.