Cerebrovascular Disease

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CEREBROVASCULAR DISEASE

What is Cerebrovascular Disease?

Cerebrovascular disease is a group of disorders that affects the blood vessels of the brain. It includes stroke, transient ischemic attack (TIA), aneurysm and vascular malformation.

The source of epilepsy is the electrical circuits in the brain. Abnormal electrical events in the brain can cause seizures of different kinds. Epilepsy can occur due to multiple reasons including complications during birth of the baby, brain injury, stroke, brain tumours, brain infections, and abnormal development of brain can be the main cause for epilepsy, although the exact reason may remain unknown in many of the cases. Epilepsy can sometimes be related to genetic factors as well.

Epilepsy symptoms can vary according to type of seizures. A focal seizure may originate from a specific part of the brain and will manifest accordingly. A big seizure or generalised seizure is the most common type of recognised seizures. However various other types include transient confusional state, state of starring look with unresponsiveness, some abnormal movements like chewing type, swallowing, rubbing hands or speaking abnormally for a very brief period. Some of the seizures may have just up rolling of eyes with head and eyes going to one side and may have twisting of either arms or hands.

Untreated seizures can have serious results and cause harm especially related to fall and injuries to various body parts.

The common understanding and public perception regarding epilepsy is often a greater challenge than the seizures itself. Lack of awareness in general public, schools and various organizations leads to stigma of epilepsy. A person with epilepsy should be able to disclose about epilepsy in a healthy and comfortable environment including school, colleges and working places.

Symptoms
Risk Factors
Prevention

Symptoms

 
  • A severe and sudden headache
  • Paralysis of one side of the body, or hemiplegia
  • Weakness on one side, also known as hemiparesis
  • Confusion
  • Losing vision on one side
  • Difficult communicating, including slurred speech
  • Loss of balance
  • Becoming unconscious
  •  

Risk Factors

  • Hypertension
  • Smoking
  • Obesity
  • Poor diet and lack of exercise
  • Diabetes
  • Blood cholesterol levels of 240 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dl) or higher
  • Moyamoya Disease
  • Venous Angiomas
  • A vein of Galen malformation

Prevention

To reduce the risk of cerebrovascular disease, the following methods must be adapted:

  • Get at least 15 minutes of moderate to intense physical exercise every week.
  • Eat a balanced diet
  • Maintain a healthy body weight
  • Manage blood cholesterol and blood pressure

How is it diagnosed?

The specialist will look for specific neurological, motor, and sensory difficulties, including:

How is it treated?

A neurosurgeon must evaluate an individual who has a brain hemorrhage. They may carry out surgery to reduce the increased pressure that a bleed causes.

It involves making an incision in the carotid artery and removing the plaque. This allows the blood to flow again. The surgeon then repairs the artery with sutures or a graft.
This involves a surgeon inserting a balloon-tipped catheter into the artery. They will then inflate balloon so that it reopens the artery. Afterward, the surgeon fits a slender, metal mesh tube, or stent, inside the carotid artery to improve blood flow in the previously blocked artery. The stent helps to prevent the artery from collapsing or closing up after the procedure.

When do I contact the doctor?

You need to consult the doctor immediately in case of any stroke-like symptoms. Getting immediate medical attention will help give the best chance for full recovery.